Hunters and trainers might argue about which breeds of sporting dogs are best for their preferred pursuits, but they can all agree on one thing—sporting dogs are driven to work. Whether it’s a setter, pointer, shorthair, or retriever, sporting dogs are energetic, focused, and motivated. Off-season conditioning helps dogs maintain their hunting drive all year long. Well-conditioned bird dogs can run for miles without missing a step, and retrievers can run, jump, and swim their way through dozens of retrieves.
Proper conditioning strengthens a sporting dog’s cardiovascular and muscular fitness and allows them to recover quickly after a day in the field. Yet, their recovery can slow after several days of demanding activity. Though often overlooked, oxidative stress and the buildup of free radicals can be contributing factors to your dog’s fatigue. Incorporating antioxidants into your dog’s diet can support post-exercise recovery.
What are Free Radicals?
“Free radicals are by-products of energy production within the body and a normal part of a dog’s life,” says Russ Kelley of the Eukanuba™ & Royal Canin Pet Health & Nutrition Center. “Under normal conditions a dog’s body can handle free radicals, but dogs that work hard for long hours can burn an amazing amount of oxygen and with that comes the production of what is called reactive oxidative species, or ROS.” Kelley explains that as ROS or free radicals build up in the body, they have detrimental effects on a dog’s health.
On a molecular level, free radicals contain oxygen and are missing an electron. This makes them highly reactive. They attack and take electrons from cell membranes, proteins, and DNA. A molecule that loses an electron to a free radical often becomes a free radical itself.
What are Antioxidants and How Can they Support Post-Exercise Recovery?
To put it simply, antioxidants help combat free radicals.
They are vital in helping your dog recover from strenuous exercise and stay healthy. Common antioxidants include Vitamins C and E as well as lutein, beta-carotene, and taurine. The combination of these antioxidants can help reduce oxidative stress and the buildup of free radicals.
The body's normal antioxidant defenses provide some protection against free radicals. But after a hard day in the field, free radicals caused by oxidative stress build to a point where a dog’s normal defenses are overwhelmed. This is where adding antioxidants to a dog’s diet becomes important in supporting post-exercise recovery.
“Antioxidants play a dual role,” says Kelley. “They help combat oxidative stress and are beneficial in helping counter the effects of free radicals in the body.”
A series of studies1,2,3,4,5 have found that dogs fed antioxidant-enriched diets were able to learn complex tasks better than the dogs in control groups. These studies have led researchers to hypothesize that antioxidants may help reduce the effects of oxidative stress on brain function. Additionally, these researchers found that including antioxidants in a dog’s diet helped reduce age-related behavioral changes associated with cognitive decline. Dogs consuming antioxidant-enriched diets also displayed greater agility and were able to recognize their family members more easily than those in control groups.
To work at his peak, a dog must recover from daily work and training. Proper conditioning is important for post-exercise recovery, but nutrition also plays an important role. A nutritionally complete and balanced food may contain optimal levels of antioxidants for dogs. Dog food that contains antioxidants, such as Eukanuba’s Premium Performance™ line, supports post-exercise recovery and helps dogs perform at their peak throughout the year.
1Milgram, N.W., Head, E., Muggenburg, B., et al., 2002. “Landmark Discrimination Learning in the Dog: Effects of Age, An Antioxidant Fortified Food, and Cognitive Strategy.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 26 (October): 679–695.
2Cotman, C.W., Head, E., Muggenburg, B.A., et al., 2002. “Brain Aging in The Canine: A Diet Enriched in Antioxidants Reduces Cognitive Dysfunction.” Neurobiol Aging, 23 (September-October): 809–818.
3Ikeda-Douglas, C.J, Zicker, S.C., Estrada, J., et al., 2004. “Prior Experience, Antioxidants, and Mitochondrial Cofactors Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Beagles.” Vet Ther, 5 (Spring): 5–16.
4Milgram, N.W., Zicker, S.C., Head, E., et al., 2002. “Dietary Enrichment Counteracts Age-Associated Cognitive Dysfunction in Canines.” Neurobiol Aging, 23 (September-October): 737–745.
5Dodd, C.E., Zicker, S.C., Jewell, D.E., et al., 2003. “Can a Fortified Food Affect the Behavioral Manifestations of Age-Related Cognitive Decline In Dogs?” Vet Med, 98 (May): 396–408.View Russ Kelley's Profile & Articles